Perceived campus and house norms regarding alcohol use and availability Reponses to items on the perceived campus and house norms regarding alcohol use and availablity were indicated using a 4-point scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 4 strongly agree. Students living in Greek houses and residence housing were four times more likely to indicate heavy alcohol use than were students in substance-free housing. For example, studies have found that between and , frequent binge drinking more than doubled for women at single-sex colleges Wechsler et al. Research has associated endorsement of positive e. A similar cross-sectional study revealed that the association between type of residence and alcohol-related problems remained significant even after controlling for other college lifestyle factors and precollege drinking behaviors Harford et al.
This is not surprising because these are the primary residential options at large 4-year colleges and universities characteristic of the study sites. Participants also indicated their evaluations of each positive and negative expected outcome by rating their perception of the effect of alcohol use, using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 bad to 5 good. They can elect to reside on or off campus, in an apartment or sorority house, or at home. Residence-hall style At the university where we conducted the present study, there is one isolated section of on-campus housing with larger, uniform buildings with long hallways. House-style On-campus residences with a capacity of 10— students were built to resemble large homes found in the surrounding community, though the architecture and interior structure of each home was unique. We conducted descriptive analyses to illustrate differences in drinking behaviors and known risk factors associated with alcohol use between students who live in residence hall-style houses and those who do not. The Student Housing Environment The broad cultural and social norms found in a collegiate environment can extend to a more proximal social context, specifically to residential settings. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. We calculated a score for each expectancy dimension by summing across all items in each domain and dividing by the total number of items in that dimension. Many other studies have examined the differential effect of type of residence on alcohol use levels and drinking-related problems Baer, ; Boyd et al. Students lived on campus for the duration of their college enrollment; only a few applied to live off campus. Study Aims Previous researchers have suggested that the living situation of college students plays a role in their drinking behaviors and alcohol use attitudes and perceptions. The authors discuss implications for college housing and programming. Therefore, further studies are needed on heavy alcohol use among college women and the risk factors that contribute to their elevated use so that college personnel can effectively design and implement interventions to help decrease heavy college drinking. We measured perceived campus norms by asking participants to indicate how much they disagreed or agreed with the following statements: In essence, individuals consume alcohol because they expect it to yield certain effects. Residence life personnel assign students to a house when they commit to enrollment in the college, with no pledge requirement, which is common among Greek house applicants. Research has shown that the role of drinking history and alcohol expectancies—in relation to drinking behaviors—provides important information regarding the understanding of alcohol use in college. Also, students living in residence hall-style houses endorsed more positive expectations about the effects of alcohol and evaluated negative alcohol expectancies more favorably than did students living in house-style residences. Because of the residential structure across these two settings, we expected variations regarding problematic drinking behaviors and the risk correlates of alcohol use. We also asked participants to indicate how most of their close friends feel about students their age drinking alcohol, using a 5-point scale ranging from 0 very much against it to 4 very much for it. Precollege drinking behaviors We asked participants to respond on a 7-point scale ranging from 0 never to 6 or more times regarding how often they used each of the following during the years that they were in high school: Research has associated endorsement of positive e. Results showed that students in residence hall-style houses reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use and perceived that their college, housemates or roommates, and close peers are more permissive of alcohol use than did students living in house-style residences. Over the course of two academic years, we recruited undergraduate students enrolled in several large, survey psychology courses. Participants provided consent and then completed a min self-report questionnaire. Participants received course credit for participation.
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