Not all treatments were so gruesome: Cognitive therapists, meanwhile, made a few attempts to change homosexuals' thought patterns by reframing desires—redirecting thoughts away from homosexual activity—or through hypnosis. So on August 5, the APA's Council of Representatives took the strongest stand yet, passing a near-unanimous resolution urging mental health professionals not to tell clients that they can change their sexual orientation through therapy or any other methods. There is a lot I personally struggle with here, simply because of the need for evidence base to support these notions and also perhaps because the ideological climate of therapy fields at the time was different to that of today. The homosexual patient must come to feel resentment, disgust and aversion to invert practices and he himself come to consciously reject homosexuality, as well as develop positive heterosexual feelings and desires.
Such beliefs are likely to influence and effect the application of therapy interventions. The paper presented at the APA meeting was "the most thorough comprehensive review of the literature ever done, and used the highest standards of analysis," says Judith Glassgold, a psychologist who led the task force. Throughout the s and into the mids, treatments in the U. Furthermore, the conditioned association and aversion reaction is more prolonged because of post-hypnotic amnesia. Experimental treatments were performed throughout the mid-century, sometimes in high profile cases. Mark Yarhouse , a psychology professor at Regent University, and Stanton Jones, provost and professor of psychology at Wheaton College. The treatment involves four phases: Rather unusually, the article makes recommendations for the most appalling smells to use with the aversion — including urine! Likewise, if the therapist is invested in such beliefs that is likely to influence the effects of the therapy too. Though is not untypical of the thought process of the day in psychiatric circles whereby homosexuality had been considered a mental illness in some quarters. I have researched far and wide for other related works and can find virtually no documented evidence or people to support this use of hypnosis outside of extremist groups using misinformation to promote radicalism. Given that homosexual activity was also criminally prosecuted in the U. These "therapies" were generally ineffective—the person remained attracted to the same sex—or over-effective—the person was traumatized and lost all sexual arousal entirely. Some aversion treatments included rewards—including pleasant smells—for arousal in response to pictures of women. It seemed preferable to be able to create a conditioned aversion reaction so that the patient not only experiences immediate revulsion on physical contact with a homosexual but also comes to anticipate such contact with feelings of disgust, displeasure and dread. As he did, he felt an intense sexual longing. Therapists also gave patients drugs that induced vomiting or paralysis, or exposed them to noxious chemicals like ammonia, whenever they were aroused by same-sex photos. They "were used without people thinking about whether they were humane," Glassgold says. The author decides then that aversion is the way forward and explains his reasons that homosexuals should be treated with aversion to overcome their homosexuality: Plus the research would need to be replicated by other researchers in other settings. It appeared likely that the aversion and disgust reaction could be prolonged and intensified if a conditioned reflex reaction could be established in the subconscious mind of the patient you regular readers of this blog will know that many corners of the scientific world tend to refute the existence of a subconscious mind and, furthermore, that in order for this aversion to occur and be fixated it must be established beyond the reach of conscious resistances and ego defenses. Treatments follow from the assertion that homosexuality is not an innate trait, but rather a result of childhood trauma and lack of attachment to members of the same sex. There is a lot I personally struggle with here, simply because of the need for evidence base to support these notions and also perhaps because the ideological climate of therapy fields at the time was different to that of today. A century of treatments have ranged from horrifying to horribly unscientific. You can read and download the entire article if you wish. For nearly 30 years, he has offered a "psychodynamic" form of reparative therapy for people—mostly men—seeking to change their sexual orientation. A year-old married accountant was recalling another man that he had seen at the airport while on a business trip.
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