However, studies do find that aspects of sexuality expression have an experiential basis and that parental attitudes towards a particular sexual orientation may affect how children of the parents experiment with behaviors related to a certain sexual orientation. Additionally, the Pan American Health Organization recommended that such malpractices be denounced and subject to sanctions and penalties under national legislation, as they constitute a violation of the ethical principles of health care and violate human rights that are protected by international and regional agreements. The Kinsey scale has been praised for dismissing the dichotomous classification of sexual orientation and allowing for a new perspective on human sexuality. Berlin sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld published a scheme in that measured the strength of an individual's sexual desire on two independent point scales, A homosexual and B heterosexual. Similarly, considering heterosexuality and homosexuality on separate scales would allow one to be both very heterosexual and very homosexual or not very much of either. For example, a woman may have fantasies or thoughts about sex with other women but never act on these thoughts and only have sex with opposite gender partners. Sexual orientation change efforts and Conversion therapy Sexual orientation change efforts are methods that aim to change a same-sex sexual orientation. They report finding it difficult to assign ratings for individuals with a large number of heterosexual and homosexual experiences.
Fetal hormones may be seen as either the primary influence upon adult sexual orientation or as a co-factor interacting with genes or environmental and social conditions. This results in sexual differences between males and females. Sexual orientation is therefore not a choice, though sexual behaviour clearly is. Current scientific investigation usually seeks to find biological explanations for the adoption of a particular sexual orientation. The Kinsey scale provides a classification of sexual orientation based on the relative amounts of heterosexual and homosexual experience or psychic response in one's history at a given time. Sexual orientation change efforts and Conversion therapy Sexual orientation change efforts are methods that aim to change a same-sex sexual orientation. One of the uses for scales that assess sexual orientation is determining what the prevalence of different sexual orientations are within a population. The Royal College of Psychiatrists in stated: For each question on the scale that measures homosexuality there is a corresponding question that measures heterosexuality giving six matching pairs of questions. Generally, there are three components of sexual orientation used in assessment. The authors concluded that "our findings, taken in context with previous work, suggest that genetic variation in each of these regions contributes to development of the important psychological trait of male sexual orientation. However, research suggests that this may be of immunological origin, caused by a maternal immune reaction against a substance crucial to male fetal development during pregnancy, which becomes increasingly likely after every male gestation. Dioning - Comparable to the modern term "heterosexual" Urning - Comparable to the modern term "homosexual" Mannling - A manly urning Zwischen - A somewhat manly and somewhat effeminate urning Virilised - An urning that sexually behaves like a dioning Urano-Dioning - Comparable to the modern term "bisexual" From at least the late nineteenth century in Europe, there was speculation that the range of human sexual response looked more like a continuum than two or three discrete categories. Individuals are almost entirely homosexual in their activities or reactions. Furthermore, there are more than two dimensions of sexuality to be considered. Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiation , hormonal exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult. Introduced in Klein's book The Bisexual Option , the KSOG uses a 7-point scale to assess seven different dimensions of sexuality at three different points in an individual's life: The Sell Assessment of Sexual Orientation[ edit ] The Sell Assessment of Sexual Orientation SASO was developed to address the major concerns with the Kinsey Scale and Klein Sexual Orientation Grid and as such, measures sexual orientation on a continuum, considers various dimensions of sexual orientation, and considers homosexuality and heterosexuality separately. A twin study from appears to exclude genes as a major factor,  while a twin study from found that homosexuality was explained by both genes and environmental factors. Individuals have more overt activity or psychic reactions in the homosexual while still maintaining a fair amount of heterosexual activity or responding rather definitively to heterosexual contact. An individual can be assigned a position on the scale in accordance with the following definitions of the points of the scale: When there are a substantial number of heterosexual and homosexual experiences in one's history, it becomes difficult for that individual to be fully objective in assessing the relative amount of each. These Y-linked proteins would not be recognized in the mother's immune system because she is female, causing her to develop antibodies which would travel through the placental barrier into the fetal compartment. An urning can be further categorized by degree of effeminacy. Taken all together, the six pairs of questions and responses provide a profile of an individual's sexual orientation. Early classification schemes[ edit ] One of the earliest sexual orientation classification schemes was proposed in the s by Karl Heinrich Ulrichs in a series of pamphlets he published privately. This effect is nullified if the man is left-handed.
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