The measure of sex segregation in employment most com- monly used in this report, and in other social science research, measures the degree,of segregation against a standard of total in- tegration. Combined with problems for women in gaining promotion, endemic in most industries and which we will discuss below this in turn meant that very few women achieved the position of creative director. They can make themselves quite vulnerable, just physically vulnerable. During the recent recessions in the United States and Europe this was true for women in certain blue- colIar occupations, such as durable goods manufacturing O'Neill and Smith, ; R. What of the clustering of men in the more prestigious creative roles, across many different cultural industries, noted earlier? Using data, Halaby b found that female managers in a large public utility firm earned on average 64 percent as much as male managers.
We will suggest some here. In the Soviet Union, both physicians and street cleaners are usually female Lapidus, Ilese and other consequences of sex- segregated work careers also follow women into retirement. That is, men were overrepresented in high- er-paying firms, which hired fewer women across ad the occupations she studied. Increased rates of em- ployment by married women with children have contributed substantially to the grown in women's labor force participation. This can be seen when comparing such discourse with women's explanations of what they feel they, as women, can valuably bring to a workplace. In recent federal "reductions in force," women in positions with ratings of GS 12 or above were laid oE at a rate 2. But in the U. In the remainder of this chapter we pro- vide further description of the situation of women in the labor market; discuss the con- cepts of segregation in general and sex seg- regation in the workplace; and briefly review the literature on the consequences of the latter. It is thus better to describe such phenomena as sexual divergence in type of prey or in selection of niche. Some of them are positive, such as the idea that women have a caring nature, that they are skilled in domestic work, or that they have greater manual dexterity, trustworthiness and attractiveness. The music industry is still an incredibly sexist industry. These differences and the committee's ultimate concern with the total amount of sex segregation in the workplace dictate focusing on jobs when the data per- mit. Women's employment, like men's, plays a vital role in our economy. Women are more likely than ever to be in the labor force, and they can expect to spend a substantial portion of their adult lives doing paid work. So you have gender models. Women, Gender and Work. The National Academies Press. Smith, ; Urquhart and Hewson, This was by no means atypical in television production, and importantly, the creative side is more prestigious. This chapter therefore seeks to remedy this fault at least partially, by drawing on our empirical material, and on previous research on gender and work, gender and cultural production, and cultural production and work. Gender and Newsroom Cultures: However, in late the adult male unemployment rate sur- passed that of women by 0. In , about one out of five women workers maintained families on their own. An example of within-firm segre- gation contributing to the income gap is the assignment of men to higher-paid night work. We return to this important issue of stereotypes in what follows, as it has a considerable bearing on sex segregation in the cultural industries which is itself the key source of social representation, whether stereotyped or otherwise.
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