One of the few historical theories on the causes of voyeurism comes from psychoanalytic theory. Psychoanalytic , group psychotherapy and shock aversion approaches have all been attempted with limited success. In Canada , for example, voyeurism was not a crime when the case Frey v. Voyeurism was initially believed to only be present in a small portion of the population. Some consumer digital cameras are now so small that in previous decades they would have qualified as "spy cameras", and digital cameras of twenty megapixels or more are now being embedded in some mobile camera phones. The vast majority of mobile phones in use are camera phones.
However, there are some trends regarding who is likely to engage in voyeurism. In order to be diagnosed with voyeuristic disorder the symptoms must persist for over six months and the person in question must be over the age of In the United Kingdom , for example, non-consensual voyeurism became a criminal offence on May 1, Psychoanalytic , group psychotherapy and shock aversion approaches have all been attempted with limited success. Certain image capturing devices are capable of producing images through materials that are opaque to visible light, including clothing. There is very little research done on voyeurism in women, so very little is known on the subject. One of the few studies deals with a case study of a woman who also had schizophrenia. There have been multiple instances of successful treatment of voyeurism through putting patients on fluoxetine and treating their voyeuristic behavior as a compulsion. Voyeurism was initially believed to only be present in a small portion of the population. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. Another English case in , R v Wilkins ,   resulted in a man who filmed his intercourse with five of his lovers for his own private viewing, being sentenced to imprisonment for eight months and ordered to sign the Sex Offenders Register, where his name would remain for ten years. Singapore sentences technologically-enabled voyeurs to a maximum punishment of one year's jail and a fine under the context of insulting a woman's modesty. Voyeurism is generally deemed illegal in Singapore. Psychoanalytic theory proposes that voyeurism results from a failure to accept castration anxiety and as a result a failure to identify with the father. The vast majority of mobile phones in use are camera phones. When a review was published in there were only 15 available resources. In a more recent English case in , Mark Lancaster was found guilty and jailed for voyeurism, after having tricked an year-old student into traveling to a rented flat in Milton Keynes, where he filmed her with four secret cameras dressing up as a schoolgirl and posing for photographs before he had sex with her. In common law countries it is only a crime if made so by legislation. Infrared and terahertz-wave cameras are capable of creating images through clothing, though these images differ from what would be created with visible light. In Canada , for example, voyeurism was not a crime when the case Frey v. The United States FBI assert that some individuals who engage in "nuisance" offenses such as voyeurism may also have a propensity for violence based on behaviors of serious sex offenders. Criminal voyeurism statutes are related to invasion of privacy laws  but are specific to unlawful surreptitious surveillance without consent and unlawful recordings including the broadcast, dissemination, publication, or selling of recordings involving places and times when a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy and a reasonable supposition they are not being photographed or filmed by "any mechanical, digital or electronic viewing device, camera or any other instrument capable of recording, storing or transmitting visual images that can be utilized to observe a person. Intense pharmaceutical treatment may not be required for most voyeurs. When treated by the same approach as OCD, voyeuristic behaviors significantly decrease. More recent research shows that, compared to the general population, voyeurs were moderately more likely to have psychological problems, use alcohol and drugs, and have higher sexual interest generally. There was no indication that the footage had been shown to anyone else or distributed in any way. Voyeurism has also been successfully treated with a mix of anti-psychotics and antidepressants.
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